Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation!

Our mission is to enhance public understanding of toxicology through access to objective, science-based information on the safety of chemicals and other agents encountered in daily life.

The amount of unsubstantiated information filling internet and other sources is growing exponentially. If you value TEF's efforts to provide credible scientific information that is relevant to you, then be sure to like us on Facebook, Link In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon.com and make a generous 100% tax free contribution through our Donate page. We are especially grateful for your support and encouragement!

What is Toxicology?

The Science

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on living organisms and the ecosystem, including the prevention and amelioration of such adverse effects. We are made up of chemicals and they are a part of everything we do. Whether naturally occurring or man-made, our bodies are constantly interacting with chemicals in our food, products, and environment.

TEF's Goal

TEF provides the public with access to reliable scientific information in order to make informed decisions about chemical exposures. Everyone is exposed to chemicals.  Whereas some types of exposure are beyond our control, we as a society have the power to accept or reject certain exposures.  Individuals also often have choices in the type and amount of certain chemicals to which each of us may be exposed. No chemical, biological or physical agent in our environment is completely without risk, but risk is sometimes worth taking if the benefits outweigh the risk.

Tox in the News

Viewer suggestions for current toxicology topics that you'd like more information about are always welcome.   Feel free to email us through our Contact page at toxedf@gmail.com.

Risk Assessment Course November 14-18, 2022   Cincinnati, OH

We're pleased to announce a course designed to develop all of the skills needed to perform a thorough risk assessment. To perform a meaningful risk assessment many skills are required beyond toxicology and data interpretation. These skills include communications, sample design, team building, project management, and several others. In light of the Covid-19 outbreak, a module has been added which discusses emergency response during an epidemic and the challenges created by that situation. Upon completion, students will have the basic knowledge needed to become part of a risk assessment team and continue to build their skills.
Links to the course video and registration form are provided below.
For questions or additional information please contact either Michael Dourson (dourson.michael@gmail.com) or William Hayes (wphayesconsulting@gmail.com).
RARM Video 2022 RARM Registration
Foraging for mushrooms this Spring? A new CDC report discusses the consequences of poisonous mushroom ingestion. What you need to know before hunting. In the wet, early Spring months in the Midwest and elsewhere, you can find a plethora of folks out and about, prowling for the elusive and valuable Morel mushroom. Other popular edible mushrooms in the region include Chanterelle and Oyster. However, lurking within this delicious and (potentially) lucrative pastime is the possibility for poisoning from ingestion of toxic mushrooms. A recent report by the CDC reviewed accidental poisoning data from the consumption of foraged mushrooms. They identified an estimated 1,328 emergency department visits in 2016 alone from poisonous mushroom ingestion with over 100 hospitalizations. The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal, neurologic, cardiac, and respiratory. Serious adverse effects occurred in nearly 9% of poisoning cases from 2016-2018, and included cardiac arrythmia, acute renal failure, liver failure, and seizure. And, because poisonings of this nature are not always reported, these data likely underestimate the occurrence of adverse effects. The “Morel” of the story? Know before you go. Forage with an expert or seek training on mushroom identification prior to starting out. Nowadays, many apps and guides are available and can be downloaded on your smartphone. Understand that poisonous mushrooms may closely resemble non-poisonous ones, they should never be consumed unless identified by an expert, and consumption of misidentified mushrooms can lead to sickness and in some cases, death. Additional Links and Resources: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7010a1.htm https://www2.illinois.gov/dnr/conservation/Forestry/UrbanForestry/Documents/USDA%20Field%20Guide%20Common%20Macrofungi%20in%20Eastern%20Forests%20and%20Their%20Ecosystem%20Functions.pdf https://www.nytimes.com/wirecutter/blog/how-to-hunt-mushrooms/ Oleander and COVID-19 Recent news reports have been covering the suggestion that extracts from the natural Oleander plant may have benefits in treating COVID-19.  While compounds from many natural plants have been used for medicines, as with all chemicals, the safety of natural materials needs to be carefully studied.  Remember, the dose is what can differentiate a remedy from a poison.  Oleander contains a potent cardiac toxin and poisonings from it have been known for centuries.  At TEF, we think the following article addresses the concerns well. https://theconversation.com/oleandrin-is-a-deadly-plant-poison-not-a-covid-19-cure-144658 Bottom line--There appears to be very little rigorous evidence that Oleander provides a benefit in treating COVID-19.  Until there is good science, taking a natural substance that is well known as a lethal poison is ill-advised.   Smoking and Cancer—Even a modest amount raises risk!

Smoking causes lung cancer.  That’s a fact.  But, many people may wonder if even a small amount of nondaily smoking is also associated with lung cancer.  According to research recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, even relatively modest nondaily smoking was significantly associated with increased risk.  They also found that the risk follows dose-response with risk increasing from as little as 6-10 cigarettes per month.  In this study, the researchers used the Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) of The National Cancer Instituteto evaluate the linkage of smoking habits and risk for lung cancer in a cohort of over 500,000 people studied from 1992-2011.  Bottom line, even if you only smoke a modest amount, you’ll benefit from quitting.

Why Take Chances With the Flu?

Influenza season is upon us.   Last year many unfortunate deaths occurred among children and adults who never got a seasonal flu vaccine.  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a seasonal flu vaccination for anyone 6 years and older (https://www.cdc.gov/flu/) and addresses important vaccines for pregnant women (Maternal Vaccines: Part of a Healthy Pregnancy).  According to the CDC, an optimal time to receive the seasonal flu vaccine is by the end of October.   Although vaccination early in the season minimizes the chances of contracting the flu, getting a flu shot later in the season can still reduce serious illnesses and deaths.

Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding may be especially hesitant to receive a flu shot if they do not fully understand the consequences.   Which is riskier to them, their unborn children and their newborn babies---getting the flu or taking the vaccine?   Why not explore the information and resources and discuss with your health care provider for optimal protection for you and your baby?

MotherToBaby Fact Sheets explain all of the added risks to mother and baby if a pregnant woman gets the flu.   The safety of the flu vaccine and benefits of preventing a serious case of the flu by choosing to receive a seasonal flu vaccination are also clearly explained in the seasonal flu vaccine Fact Sheet.  The Flu Vaccination Fact Sheet also points out those infants who do contract the flu are at increased risk for severe cases of the disease.   Since infants cannot receive the flu shot until they are six months old, vaccinating the mother and other caregivers may help protect babies from getting the flu.   Read all about this and more in these Fact Sheets and ask yourself:   Is not getting vaccinated worth the risk?

Welcome To The Poison Garden: Medicine's Medieval Roots…

A recent NPR article tells the story of the Duchess of Northumberland's (aka Jane Percy) "Poison Garden." This special garden was started in 2005 as part of the 12-acre, elaborate garden on the grounds of her family's home, Alnwick Castle, in northeast England. Apothecary gardens were a traditional part of English villages and castles for centuries. Many of England's cities and towns have apothecary ("druggist's") gardens - historical plots containing plants turned into treatments centuries ago by doctors, herbalists, religious folks and shamans. Most such gardens exist today to teach visitors about the history of medicine, according to the NPR story.

As the story explains, plants evolved poisonous properties to keep from being eaten, according to Dr. Henry Oakeley, who has studied the medicinal effects of plants as a Garden Fellow at the Royal College of Physicians. Some of those same chemicals that began as plant protection, he says, are now used to help people - by killing cancer cells, say, or quieting an overactive muscle or a painful nerve cell. Yet, there can be a fine line between curing and killing. Remember, "the dose makes the poison!" Read more about this issue in TEF's Tox Topic entitled, "Venomous or Poisonous - Animals, Plants, Mushrooms, and More" on this site.

Read more of the NPR story by following the link below.


Mystery solved! An illness in children that baffled public health officials in India for many years was determined to be caused by the toxicity of natural products in lychee fruit consumed by malnourished children.

The New York Times reported on the important discovery from a study which was published in the journal, Lancet Global Health.  Scientists from India and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta collaborated to solve the mystery and warn consumers of the risk.  Numbers of cases have dropped dramatically in response.  Another example of “natural” not necessarily being “safe,” and pre-existing individual factors coupled with exposure to natural toxins resulting in variability in responses to the poison.  Read more in the link below.


Eat a healthy diet (lots of fruits and veggies!) as an informed consumer and remember…. The Dose Makes the Poison!

A recent article in the Washington Post addresses the issue of the effect of “lists” of “good” and “bad” things in your food basket and shows that such lists have an influence on consumers but not always to their benefit. It makes the point that is in keeping with basic toxicology principles that the mere presence of a “toxic” chemical does not necessarily mean that it presents a risk or that the food containing that chemical is “bad” for you. So, while it is always good to know the benefits and the risks of foods in our diet, avoiding foods on lists based on hazards, or potential for harm, will not mean that you are making the best decisions for your health or that paying more for “organic” will make those foods better for you. See the linked Washington Post article below for more information.


The President has signed the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act into law with strong support but some concerns from the toxicology community.

The President signed the bill to reform the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) after 40 years. The compromise bill was the subject of much debate over the last five years and was the subject of a Task Force of the Society of Toxicology who worked to assure that strong scientific principles were embodied in the final language. While widely praised as a significant improvement over the current law, issues remained for some constituencies.  See the link below for further information.


Graphic Cigarette Warnings Deter Smokers

A study described in The Science Times on June 14, 2016 provides the first hard evidence that graphic warnings aid in smoking control.  Despite arguments to the contrary by the tobacco industry, a randomized controlled trial, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Internal Medicine, has provided evidence that pictorial warnings were more effective for both sexes and across races, ethnicities and socioeconomic levels.  See the linked Science Times article for more information.


Questions and answers on the new study linking cell phones and cancer in rats A preliminary study from the National Institute’s of Health (NIH) National Toxicology Program (NTP), released on May 27, 2016, found that radiation from cellphones appears to have increased the risks that male rats developed tumors in their brains and hearts.  But there are many caveats and some experts are debunking the study.  See the linked New York Times article and video for further information.



We are very pleased by the positive response to our newest video Toxicity Today offering a comic taste of the “sometimes not poisonous and sometimes very poisonous” Botox® and the not-always-as-safe-as-you-think overconsumption of water!

TEF will continue to add website content that explains fundamental toxicology principles and concepts and addresses current toxicology-related topics to keep our viewers informed about the state-of-the-art of toxicology.

If you find this information useful then please consider donating to TEF!

is it safe?

“Is It Safe?” is a free educational video created by TEF with a ... More

"All substances are poisons: there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy." - Paracelsus (1493-1541)

“¿Es Seguro?” Video - Español

TEF has developed and provides audiovisual materials for the public ... More
TEF In the Classroom

Our Long Term Goals Include Assisting Teachers

The Toxicology Education Foundation's main focus is to increase the general public's understanding of the principles and concepts of toxicology that have broad application.    Often, however, this is most effective through coverage of specific issues of significance to the world of toxicology as well as current interest among the general public.   Another approach to reaching this goal in the long term involves introducing toxicology at an early age; that, is identifying a subset of our educational materials that TEF feels would be most suitable for teachers to use in classrooms with the younger members of our general population.  Although we expect teachers to be the best judges of appropriate resources for their own students, and we encourage teachers to review all of our materials for this purpose, those we identify as most suitable for younger members of our general public can be reached directly through the button below.  

View Our Classroom  Materials

Educating the public about toxicology in our world
as an independent non-profit since 2002.
Thank you to our supporters!
Special thanks to Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment for website design.