Exposures During Pregnancy or Breastfeeding

The Toxicology Education Foundation is pleased to be partnering with MotherToBaby/California to expand access to information about medications and other exposures during pregnancy and while breastfeeding.  MotherToBaby ( is a service of the non-profit Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) dedicated to providing evidence-based information to mothers, health care professionals, and the general public.  OTIS experts create well-referenced Fact Sheets offered in English and Spanish that focus on frequently asked questions ...

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Alcohol and Alcoholism

Although, chemically, there are many types of alcohol, drinks known as alcoholic beverages contain some percentage of ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, which is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches.  Common alcoholic beverages include wine, beer, and distilled spirits (e.g. whiskey, brandy, rum, vodka).  For this Tox Topic, we will adopt the generally used though imprecise term, alcohol, to refer to alcoholic beverages.  Despite overwhelming scientific evidence attesting to the deleterious and potentially devastating effects of alcohol, the bottom line ...

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Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Hazards

Any chemical or other factor such as heat stress, radiation, infectious disease or improper diet that causes harm to an adult can interfere with reproduction or a child’s development.  But some factors can cause such harm to the developing child in the womb at doses or exposures lower than those that cause any obvious harm to a potential parent.  These factors are then designated as selective reproductive and/or developmental hazards.  Reproductive hazards can affect fertility by interfering with the normal development and function of the egg and sperm cells, interf...

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