Alcohol and Alcoholism

Although, chemically, there are many types of alcohol, drinks known as alcoholic beverages contain some percentage of ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, which is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches.  Common alcoholic beverages include wine, beer, and distilled spirits (e.g. whiskey, brandy, rum, vodka).  For this Tox Topic, we will adopt the generally used though imprecise term, alcohol, to refer to alcoholic beverages.  Despite overwhelming scientific evidence attesting to the deleterious and potentially devastating effects of alcohol, the bottom line ...

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Pesticides: The Challenge of Controlling Pests When Balancing Safety with Effectiveness

First let's define pest.  A pest can be almost any living thing considered by us, humans, to be undesirable; for example, insects, rats, mice and other animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, and viruses.  Even deer, when they go after your shrubs or vegetable garden, can be considered nuisance animals or pests.  The challenge of pesticide use is to maximize their effectiveness against pests while minimizing their hazards to humans, other animals, and the environment. As with most complex issues, there are bound to be tradeoffs. OK, so what is a pesticide? A pesticide ...

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